The Secrets Of Muscles Growth Nobody Told You!
The science of Muscle Growth
Muscle growth is often a mystery to most people. Muscle growth is the result of the accumulation of more lean body mass and the resulting increase in strength. Muscle growth is also affected by a relative increase in muscle protein (hypothesis), an increase in muscle tissue (biopsy), and an increase in the myostatin gene (intensity).
In this article, we will discuss the science of muscle growth.
One of the most common misconceptions about muscle growth is that it is a result of an increase in size.
While an appreciable amount of muscle can be built up, maximal muscle growth occurs during the last phase of the workout when maximum muscular force and size are achieved.
Muscle growth is also dependent on an increase in muscle cell number (hypertrophy) and an increase in muscle tissue (hypertrophy.)
Myostatin, a protein-derived enzyme, controls hypertrophy through a process called negative feedback.
Myostatin is an autocrine and paracrine hormone produced by muscle cells that inhibits muscle differentiation and growth.
One myostatin inhibitor is currently Under testing as a possible treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a debilitating disease that affects one in 3,500 boys worldwide.
The myostatin pathway controls protein synthesis in muscle-specific cells such as skeletal muscles and cancer cells.
how muscle growth happen?-Pathways to muscle growth
There are several known pathways controlling hypertrophy, but the three most common are through the mTorc1 protein receptor, the NF-kappaB inhibitory factor, and the insulin/IGF-dependent kinase-signaling pathways.
The mTorc1 protein receptor has been studied extensively and is the only known inhibitory factor for rapid muscle gain in humans, and surprisingly, animals.
MTorc1 is activated by insulin and the growth factor signaling pathways, thereby facilitating muscle gain.
The mTorc1 protein receptor is present in the majority of muscle fibers, where it acts on the myostatin gene and other protein synthesis pathways.
Insulin and muscle mass
Insulin and glucose are essential for life and are necessary for the maintenance of muscle mass, but recent studies have provided evidence that one of the major factors in muscle failure and loss is a reduction in the rate of insulin generation and/or uptake by the muscles.
This is true even of muscle mass that is relatively intact. Insulin has many roles in the body; however, one of the most critical functions is to signal the myostatin gene to stop its replication in the muscle fibers.
Insulin also controls the accumulation of glycogen in the muscles.
Muscle glycogen is necessary for energy production and specifically for repairing the damage that occurs during muscle repair and rehabilitation.
Muscle growth and scientific studies
Recently, researchers have discovered a new process, in which the absence of insulin results in a progressive decline in the level of muscle glycogen, resulting in a reduction in strength and ability to engage in physical activities.muscle growth
The study by Kumar and colleagues showed that a certain protein, the amino acid arginine, plays a vital role in this process. They showed that a decrease in the level of arginine promoted the oxidation of muscles.
Oxidation of muscle tissue requires an enzyme, cysteine, to convert arginine to carnosine.
Cysteine, and its derived cysteines, are essential for the synthesis of insulin and growth hormone. Kumar’s research showed that the absence of cysteine, particularly in people with hypoglycemia, results in the cessation of insulin signaling and a subsequent loss of muscle function
The findings of Kumar and colleagues are very encouraging. It is well known that insulin/IGF-I signaling plays a major role in the accumulation of lactic acid in the muscle.muscle growth
Iguerne et al. showed that inhibiting the activity of the insulin receptor in muscle prevents the accumulation of lactic acid and allows for healthy adaptation.
The results of the current study provide strong evidence that inhibiting the activity of the insulin receptor in muscle cells and promoting the activity of the IGF-I receptors plays a critical role in controlling hypertrophy in humans.
Whether the findings of Kumar and colleagues are relevant to other areas of muscle mass expansion is not known.
However, the researchers suggest that their results provide the basis for further studies to test the effects of inhibiting the activity of the insulin receptor in cancer cells.
They also suggest that future research should examine whether the results of this study are applicable to humans with muscle mass deficits or to people with diseases such as diabetes.
Further, the researchers acknowledge the importance of considering a host of possible factors when determining the physiological basis for hypertrophy, including genetic, diet, age, disease, and body composition.
Overall, this research provides strong evidence that inhibiting the activity of the insulin-signaling pathway in muscle cells controls hypertrophy.
In future studies, the researchers will continue to examine the effect of inhibiting the insulin pathway on leanness and strength in mice and other animals. Whether the results of this study will translate to humans remains to be seen.muscle growth
However, the study provides strong evidence that inhibiting the activity of the insulin-signaling pathway in muscle cells controls muscle mass.